How to diagnose asthma?

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 How to diagnose asthma?

How to diagnose asthma?

Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system, and these are its most common symptoms that require treatment

Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system. It is estimated that more than 20% of the population suffers from allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis.

Allergy is a term that indicates hypersensitivity to certain substances (allergens) that are completely harmless in healthy people. In contact with allergens, there is a reaction of the body and symptoms such as sneezing, itching of the nose and eyes, tears and runny nose or obstruction.


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Allergic asthma

Allergic asthma is the most common type of asthma in childhood and adulthood. It is a chronic disease with reversible bronchial obstruction. The obstruction is caused by inflammation, edema and contraction of the smooth muscle in the airways. Allergens that enter the respiratory system cause a hypersensitivity reaction, numerous inflammatory cells are secreted and lead to characteristic changes.

The most common allergens that cause seizures are pollen, dust, animal hair, various grasses. Symptoms of asthma attack are dyspnea, cough, high-pitched whistle during exhalation followed by tightness in the chest or a combination of these symptoms.


Asthma and the most common symptoms

Symptoms usually go away spontaneously or after taking the right medication. At the root of the asthma is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, most commonly allergic, which in stages of exacerbation causes tightening of the muscles of the small respiratory tract and increased mucus formation, which leads to obstructed air flow and causes suffocation and other symptoms of the disease.

In allergic asthma, the attack is caused by different allergens, and in non-allergic by various non-allergic factors: physical exertion, cold and dry air inhalation, viral infections, strong emotions, air pollution (most commonly tobacco smoke).

Asthmatic status is a name for a seizure that is long lasting, progressive, and unresponsive to therapy. Hospitalization is required as it can lead to death.

Asthma diagnosis, classification and control are defined by the Global Asthma Initiative (GINA).



Allergic asthma is diagnosed with a history, clinical examination, blood tests, allergy tests and spirometry (golden strand). Treatment includes allergen avoidance and pharmacological therapy (bronchodilators, corticosteroids). In the control of asthma, education, proper medication, breathing and relaxation exercises and avoiding causal factors are important.


The asthma tests are:

  • Allergic testing for inhalation or nutritional allergens
  • Immunological processing
  • Pulmonary function test or spirometry
  • Peak flow measurement (PEF) using a portable meter
  • X-ray of the paranasal sinuses, and no lung imaging is necessary
  • Load test
  • Test with methacoline or dry cold air
  • Cytological examination of coughing or nasal swabs on eosinophils
  • Measurement of concentration of nitrous oxide in exhaled air (FeNO)


Spirometric measurement of pulmonary function is a basic method of diagnosis, weight assessment and monitoring of asthma treatment. The level of bronchial obstruction and its reversibility are measured spirometrically. Asthma diagnosis and monitoring can also be used to measure daily variability in peak air expiratory flow (PEF). Specific (allergen) and non-specific (methacholine, histamine) bronchoprovocation tests are still used in the diagnosis.

The goal of asthma treatment is complete control of the disease. This means disappearing symptoms, achieving and maintaining maximal pulmonary function, reducing the number and severity of exacerbations, achieving the best quality of life for the patient, reducing morbidity and mortality, and preventing permanent damage to pulmonary function. All of these should be achieved with minimal side effects of treatment.


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